By Thomas S. Szayna

Within the Nineties, NATO started a process expansion and transformation to stay appropriate in Europe's submit chilly struggle defense atmosphere. As a part of its dedication to expansion, it admitted 3 new members―Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic in 1999 and has plans to confess extra international locations sooner or later. NATO's growth has profound army implications for the U. S. and its allies when it comes to destiny making plans and shaping concepts. either were pushed essentially by way of political imperatives, no longer by means of a feeling of direct probability, yet by means of an environment-shaping time table of democratization and integration. This document develops and applies an analytical framework for wondering the determinants of destiny NATO growth, the explicit protection demanding situations they pose, and shaping regulations that may reduction in addressing those demanding situations.

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Additional info for NATO's Further Enlargement: Determinants and Implications for Defense Planning and Shaping

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In other words, NATO is using the widely shared aspirations for long-term security of the former communist states to encourage those states to make the transition from authoritarianism and communist autarky to democracy with a market economy. It is important to keep in mind that neither enlargement nor the use of political and shaping imperatives is new. Similar motivations were behind West Germany’s accession to NATO in 1955 and Spain’s in 1982. But the current, far-reaching pre-conditions imposed on new members stand in contrast to the Cold War era’s lack of any conditions on new members (other than the consensus of existing members).

Consequently, with the main driving forces no longer so pressing, NATO’s enlargement has ceased to be a major topic in discussions of NATO’s future. Instead, the agenda is now dominated by discussions of measures to improve the compatibility and inter- 41 42 NATO Enlargement, 2000–2015 operability of NATO’s armed forces, the implications of long-term NATO involvement in the Balkans, and the extent of potential future NATO involvement in peacemaking. With the first round of enlargement completed and efforts focused on successful integration of the new members, no one questions the genuineness of NATO’s enlargement process.

For analyses of impediments to a Russian transition to a democracy, see Harry Eckstein, Frederic J. , Erik P. Hoffmann, and William M. Reisinger, with Richard Ahl, Russell Bova, and Philip G. Roeder, Can Democracy Take Root in Post-Soviet Russia? Explorations in State-Society Relations, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1998; James L. Gibson, “Putting Up with Fellow Russians: An Analysis of Political Tolerance in the Fledgling Russian Democracy,” Political Research Quarterly, 51:1, March 1998, pp.

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