By A. L. O'Toole

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12-39. 1 to Some students claim that they can study better with the radio tuned a musical program than they can in a perfectly quiet room. Other stu- dents say that any radio program or other noise distracts them and that they prefer to study in a quiet atmosphere. Among those who like to have music while they are studying, some think that classical music is best for this purpose. Others prefer popular semiclassical music. Still others say that they can learn most quickly and easily when they have as background a program of fast, loud jazz music.

Actually, in many instances, such scores probably are little better than simple ordering or ranking types of classification and should be treated as partly quantitative data in statistical analysis. In most of the above-mentioned areas of investigation, we either do not know how at present or do not feel that it is necessary to use truly quantitative classi- elementary units in our samples. Furthermore, some tests in these areas are mixtures of basically different characteristics and, thereWe ought to remember fore, such scales probably are not one-dimensional.

Consequently, their method of proof was the method of deductive logic. Of course, no one objects to deductive proof in situations where that method is applicable. But in the physical, biological, and social sciences, and in the daily lives of everyone, most of the knowledge needed for guidance in decision-making must be gained through the inductive method of statistics. All knowledge gained by that method must be phrased in terms of probability. And it is a serious error for anyone to suggest that probability statements must be replaced by deductive proof.

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