By V.V Adushkin (Editor), I.V. Nemchinov (Editor)

An asteroid or comet will unavoidably strike the Earth a few day, and very likely reason nice destruction. This quantity considers dangers as a result of collisions with cosmic items, fairly in gentle of contemporary investigations of affects by way of the authors. every one bankruptcy, written through a professional, includes an summary of a facet and new findings within the box. insurance describes and numerically estimates the most harmful results.

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The same is true for impacts of cosmic bodies. Two main factors make nuclear explosions and impacts different. First, there is a difference in maximum pressures and temperatures; although the influence of these parameters on the seismic efficiency is not substantial. Second, there is a difference in geometry of energy release and crater excavation. The impact craters are usually considered to be similar to those produced by explosions at shallow depth (Melosh 1989). The penetration depth dp of a projectile into the ground was estimated by Melosh (1989) as: dp = Dp · p/ t 1/3 where Dp is the projectile diameter, p is its density, and t is the density of the target.

2 Contamination of the Cloud by Ejecta of Small Impacts For small impacts dust is entrained in the cloud due to soil erosion, as in nuclear explosions above and on the ground. Numerical simulations have been conducted Main Factors of Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids 43 Figure 7. 5 km. The values of log(p/pa z ) are shown at some of the curves ( a z is the initial atmospheric pressure at the height z). The shock wave reaches the height of 60 km, the debris are located mainly at heights 18–22 km.

According to Krasnopevtseva and Shchukin (2004), in several regions of Eurasia the velocity of P-waves increases in depth from ∼5 km·s−1 to about 7 km s−1 at the depth of 40 km (Mohorovich boundary). In other regions intermediate layers (at depths of 15–20 km) with decreased velocity Vp can exist. In other layers increased values of Vp may be found. Therefore, waveguide modes of seismic wave propagation can be dominant. Yudakhin et al. (2003) and Shchukin (2005) proposed a three-layered model of the crust and upper mantle in the region of the east European platform: an upper layer 50–80 km, an intermediate layer 100–250 km, and a deep layer with a maximum depth of 500 km.

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