By Rene Fester Kratz PhD, Donna Rae Siegfried

An up-to-date variation of the last word consultant to figuring out biologyEver questioned how the nutrition you consume turns into the strength your physique must continue going? the speculation of evolution says that people and chimps descended from a typical ancestor, yet does it let us know how and why? We people are insatiably curious creatures who can not help thinking about how issues work — beginning with our personal our bodies. would it be nice to have a unmarried resource of speedy solutions to all our questions about how dwelling issues paintings? Now there is.From molecules to animals, cells to ecosystems, Biology For Dummies, 2d version solutions all of your questions about how dwelling issues work.Written in undeniable English and full of dozens of illustrations, quick-referenceCheat Sheets, and priceless tables and diagrams, it cuts correct to the chase with fast paced, easy-to-absorb causes of the lifestyles tactics universal to all organisms.More than 20% new and up to date content material, together with a considerable overhaul to the association of themes to make it a pleasant lecture room supplementCoverage of the newest advancements and discoveries in evolutionary, reproductive, and ecological biologyIncludes functional, up to date examplesWhether you are at present enrolled in a biology category or simply need to know extra approximately this interesting and ever-evolving box of research, this enticing consultant offers you a grip on complicated biology options and release the mysteries of ways existence works very quickly.

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It’s the smallest “piece” of matter that can be measured. Every atom actually contains even smaller pieces known collectively as subatomic particles. These include protons, neutrons, and electrons (and even quarks, mesons, leptons, and neutrinos). Subatomic particles can’t be removed from an atom without destroying the atom. Here’s the basic breakdown of an atom’s structure (see Figure 3-1): ✓ The core of an atom, called the nucleus, contains two kinds of subatomic particles: protons and neutrons.

Then” statements. In the preceding worm example, the marine biologist predicts that if the creature is a worm, then its internal structures should look like those in other worms he has studied. 4. Test the idea(s) through experimentation. Scientists must design their experiments carefully in order to test just one idea at a time (we explain how to set up a good experiment in the later “Designing experiments” section). As they conduct their experiments, scientists make observations using their five senses and record these observations as their results or data.

In pure water, the number of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions are balanced, so they don’t do any damage to living things. The relative concentration of hydrogen to hydroxide ions is represented by the pH scale. The following sections explain the pH scale and how organisms regulate themselves when their pH gets out of balance. “Ph”iguring out the pH scale In the early 1900s, scientists came up with the pH scale, a system of classifying how acidic or basic a solution is. The term pH symbolizes the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution (for example, what proportion of a solution contains hydrogen ions).

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