By Christian Leveque, Jean-Claude Mounolou

The identify offers an summary of the present wisdom in regards to the variety of the dwelling global and a few of the difficulties linked to its conservation and sustainable use. overlaying either the basics of the topic, besides the most recent learn, Biodiversity offers key conservation concerns inside a framework of worldwide case studies.Starting with a precis of the concept that of biodiversity, the textual content then explores such matters as species richness, ecological structures, the implications of human actions, variety and human health and wellbeing, genetic assets, biotechnology and conservation. Comprehensive advent to key concerns surrounding the examine of biodiversity.Extensive bibliography and references to various proper websites.Introduces present study within the box inside of a framework of important case stories.

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It was Lamarck, at the beginning of the 19th century, who developed the idea of species transforming into other species. But Lamarck’s transformism is tinged with finalism: there exists an ‘inner force’ which propels organisms to adapt to changes in their surroundings, and these transformations are transmitted to their descendants. In The Origin of Species, published in 1859, Darwin borrows certain ideas from Lamarck but rejects his finalism in favour of the principle of natural selection: those individuals who are best adapted are selected through competition.

E. 4% of the land surface of the Earth. 6), and nine are islands – among them, Madagascar, which is home to over 11 000 higher plants, with an 80 percent rate of endemicity. By contrast, the number of endemic species in Europe represents a mere 2–6 percent of global species in morphological taxonomic terms. 2 . 5 Simplified illustrative map of the biogeographic regions of Europe This map was drawn by the European Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Biodiversity for the European Commission initiative, ‘ Natura 2000’.

On a continental scale such as Europe or Africa, extinctions are compensated for by processes of speciation. 34 2 BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY log specific richness 3 2 African rivers European rivers log surface of basin (km2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure 2 . 4 Biomes as ecological units The distribution of species over the surface of the Earth is not random. It results from a combination of ecological factors, interacting with the preferences and abilities of organisms. On the basis of the combined factors of precipitation and temperature, the Earth can be divided into large morphoclimatic domains.

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