By Sarah E. McFarl, Ryan Hediger, Sarah E. McFarland
This assortment examines the query of nonhuman animal employer through moving emphasis from the human standpoint towards that of different animals, exploring modes of animal resistance to human behaviors, and contemplating the methods the presence of animals refracts human notions like supplier and species.
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62 Ibid. 42 traci warkentin of cultural transmission that Noonan has observed, could potentially qualify whales as subjects of human moral consideration. This outcome would challenge current justifications for keeping whales in captivity and the ethical appropriateness of using them to make money. However, the trapping activity Noonan witnessed which supports his theory is already remarkable in itself and directly relevant to this essay. The “inventor” of the technique devised a way of catching his own food.
As Sanders sums up: “We are not committed, of course, to some static set of presuppositions and expectations that doom us forever to some one way of looking at things. We learn, and we change. ”42 At Dolphin Cove, the bottlenose dolphins learned through unique, interactive experiences that the white trays held fish and that they can sometimes reach them on the wall. They modified their actions in relation to these knowledge-making experiences. The white trays have become significant perceivable objects in the captive umwelts of these particular bottlenose dolphins and associated with the fish meal they contain.
17 Like von Uexkull, Gibson describes the perceptual worlds of animals as both meaningful and relatively unique to the experiences of each individual. Gibson states: The environment consists of the surroundings of animals. Let us observe that in one sense the surroundings of a single animal are the same as the surroundings of all animals but that in another sense the surroundings of a single animal are different from those of any other animal. . For any animal needs to distinguish not only the substances and objects of its material environment but also the other animals and the differences between them.
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