By Freya Stark

This is often the tale of back-country Turkey, a space that even within the twentieth century continues to be stubbornly tied to antiquity. the writer traveled via it via truck and horseback, frequently by myself. She reached areas little visited and not written approximately. the rustic humans welcomed her with generosity unrelated to their meager resources.
She was once touring in time in addition, and located importance in recalling the lifetime of Alexander the nice. Twenty-two centuries in the past he was once the 1st to dream of a united global.

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Bulgaria emerged as an independent state chiefly as a consequence of the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877. 7 The social stratification described above contained also the embryo of a peculiar type of antagonism shaped along ethnic-religious lines which sparked the revolutionaries' zeal. The dominating political group, which had become dysfunctional, was almost exclusively composed of the Ottoman bureaucracy, while the leaders in towns and villages engaged in manufacturing and trade as well as the community leaders in non-Muslim villages consisted of Christians.

141-4, and M. A. Ubicini, Letters on Turkey, tr. Lady Easthorpe (London, 1856), pp. 339-44, reproduced in Issawi, op. , pp. 42—5 passim. THE OTTOMAN STATE, 1789-1908 33 the eighteenth century. It benefitted from some special economic safeguards and protectionist measures offered by the Ottoman state in its heydays. Consequently, the area developed itself economically and reached political independence before European industrial development necessitated economic and political dependence on the part of its markets and sources of agricultural commodities.

24 See Karpat, Ottoman Population and especially Politicization of Islam. I have dealt at much greater length with the effects of migration on the restructuring of society and on the culture and identity in a work to be published by the History Foundation in Istanbul in 2002. 25 This page intentionally left blank I OTTOMAN TRANSFORMATION & DEMOGRAPHY—MIGRATION This page intentionally left blank THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE OTTOMAN STATE, 1789-1908 1. Introduction The study of the Ottoman state in the latter part of the eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth demands a broader analytical framework than hitherto used if its transformation and the social and political history of the Middle East, the Balkans, and even North Africa, which were parts of the Ottoman state at one time or other, are to be properly evaluated and interpreted.

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