By Slater J.C.

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HUEBENER the dependence upon the x-coordinate. The results obtained can easily be extended to a two-dimensional geometry. In Eq. (27) 6y is the length of the junction element perturbed by the beam, and w is the junction width measured along the x-direction. From Eq. (27) we see that the change 61:(yo) is proportional to the current distribution in the unperturbed junction biased at its critical current value. According to Eq. (22) this current distribution is determined by the phase-difference functions 4(yo).

ARRAYS OF SUPERCONDUCTING TUNNEL JUNCTIONS In addition to the studies of single tunnel junctions we have discussed in Sections V and VI, large junction arrays and complex superconducting electronic circuits can be investigated by LTSEM. Such arrays become increasingly interesting because of their fundamental properties (Bindslev Hansen and Lindelof, 1984; Lobb, 1984) and because of their cryoelectronic applications including high-frequency devices (Bindslev Hansen, Finnegan and Lindelof, 198 1 ) or frequency-based voltage standards (Niemeyer, Hinken and Kautz, 1984; Niemeyer, Hinken and Meier, 1984).

Both Figs. 33 and 34 indicate satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory. , 1985. In summary, we have seen that the beam-induced voltage signal 6 V ( x ,y) clearly images the boundaries of a hotspot in a thin-film superconductor. Theoretically the origin of the voltage signal is well understood, and good agreement is found between experiment and theory, including the effects due to high-frequency beam modulation. Noting that the development of a hotspot represents the final stage (before destructive burnout) in the resistive behavior of a thin-film superconductor reached at relatively high values of the applied electric current, the possible role of LTSEM imaging of the “early” stage remains an open and interesting question.

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