By Sevket Pamuk

This quantity examines the financial heritage of a giant empire positioned on the crossroads of intercontinental exchange from the fourteenth century till the tip of worldwide warfare I. It covers all areas of the empire from the Balkans via Anatolia, Syria, Egypt and the Gulf to the Maghrib. the results of financial advancements for social and political heritage also are mentioned during the quantity. this is often a huge and pathbreaking e-book by way of essentially the most exceptional fiscal historians within the box.

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For late Byzantine coinage also see P. Grierson, Byzantine Coins Trade and money at the origins 27 In the Balkan peninsula, the fourteenth century was a period of economic stagnation and persistent ®nancial dif®culties compounded by the Black Death and the European recession. The Byzantine ®scal crisis added to these dif®culties which are re¯ected in the Balkan coinage of the period. In many parts of the peninsula, the second and third quarters of the century witnessed an accelerated decline in the metal contents of the silver coinage.

The Ottomans did not mint gold coins of their own until the last quarter of the ®fteenth century; see chapter 4, pp. 60±62. 12 Hopefully, future research will shed more light on these alternative explanations. Byzantine Empire and the Balkans In order to better understand the regional in¯uences on Ottoman monetary practices in this early era, it is necessary to examine the political, economic, and monetary conditions in the Balkans and Anatolia. We begin with the Byzantine and Balkan states in view of the close contact between them and the Ottomans during the fourteenth and ®fteenth centuries.

II, 1952, 257±354; S. Runciman ``Byzantine Trade and Industry,'' in Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vol. II, 1952, 86±118; and G. I. Bratianu, Recherches sur le Commerce Genois dans la Mer Noire au XIIIe SieÁcle (Paris: Librarie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1929). O. Iliescu, ``Le Montant du Tribut Paye par Byzance aÁ l'Empire Ottoman en 1379 et 1424,'' Revue des Etudes Sudest EuropeÂennes 9 (1971), 427±32. Metcalf, Coinage, 333±35. For late Byzantine coinage also see P. Grierson, Byzantine Coins Trade and money at the origins 27 In the Balkan peninsula, the fourteenth century was a period of economic stagnation and persistent ®nancial dif®culties compounded by the Black Death and the European recession.

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