By Ronald B. Corley

Millions of equipment were built within the a variety of biomedical disciplines, and people coated during this publication signify the fundamental, crucial and most generally used equipment in numerous various disciplines.

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It is therefore mostly used to separate small molecules and polypeptides. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) FPLC is a high performance system that was designed for protein fractionation by the company Amersham Pharmacia Biotech. FPLC uses all of the standard protein separation methods including gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, etc. FPLC is designed to improve the speed and resolution when separating proteins. Dialysis and ultrafiltration Once proteins have been isolated by column chromatography, they frequently need to be stored in a new buffer or concentrated for further use.

Maxam-Gilbert sequencing This method (15) relies on the use of chemical reagents that modify specific bases, followed by the cleavage of the DNA at one or two specific nucleotides. Labeled DNA (usually radioactively labeled at the or ends of the strands) is subjected to one of 3 chemical reactions which modify bases in a specific way. Depending on the modification, the 34 A GUIDE TO METHODS IN THE BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES chemical piperidine then catalyzes the breakage of DNA at one or two predictable bases.

The bait is fused to the coding sequence of the DNAbinding domain, and individual clones from the cDNA library are fused to the transcriptional activating domain. When the two components of the transcription factor are brought together by the interaction of bait and prey proteins, it is reconstituted and the reporter gene, which is regulated by Gal4 cognate sequences, is expressed. This system can be used to identify interacting proteins from a variety of eukaryotic species that mediate a variety of functions, from signal transduction to transcription, and has been one of the most useful systems developed to identify interacting partners.

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