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The completion of the preparatory work can provide a matrix in establishing the repetitive upper ¯oor plans whether hotel, of®ce or retail. It is common practice to set out the main elements of the upper storeys in order to develop the `footprint' of the buildings at ground level. The dichotomy that plagues core design rests with the attractions needed at entry level by comparison with the minimal qualities where immersed within lettable space at the upper ¯oors. The simplest solution is to unwind the principal ¯ight into a more generous geometry at the entrance hall.

The second is the more signi®cant application at the Guggenheim Museum, New York, by Frank Lloyd Wright, 1956. 25b). 25a Gallery spiral, Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1956 (Frank Lloyd Wright): View downwards will complain that paintings need horizontal alignment in the surrounding spaces to avoid con¯icting views. Those critical aspects are not paramount when viewing pictures at the Guggenheim; the even lighting and the spacious layout give a balanced quality to the exhibition space, without the sloping lines of the ¯oor becoming obstructive.

The naturally lit space is bridged by an elegant array of moving stairs from ¯oor to ¯oor. 17). 17 Interior of John Lewis Store, Kingston-upon-Thames, 1990, Architects: Ahrends Burton and Koralek (courtesy of Chris Gascoigne) been added parallel to the existing to improve circulation. The use of mechanical means of movement has transformed retailing design into a vertical pattern of developments, with banks of lifts and stairs set out as the key viewing point for the store interior. The concept has been transferred to multiple use buildings that might embrace hotels, of®ces and shops within a vertical atrium.

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